Phytotherapeutic Management of Endocrine Dysfunction
REFERENCES
NOTE: [PMID: ########] is the PubMed ID Number, which can be accessed at PubMed

[1] Al-Qarawi AA, Abdel-Rahman HA, El-Badry AA, Harraz F, Razig NA, Abdel-Magied EM. The effect of extracts of Cynomorium coccineum and Withania somnifera on gonadotrophins and ovarian follicles of immature Wistar rats. Phytother Res. 2000 Jun;14(4):288-90. [PMID:10861976]
[2] Chang LL, Kau MM, Wun WS, Ho LT, Wang PS. Effects of fasting on corticosterone production by zona fasciculata-reticularis cells in ovariectomized rats. J Investig Med. 2002 Mar;50(2):86-94. [PMID:11928947]
[3] McAllister JM, Hornsby PJ. TPA inhibits the synthesis of androgens and cortisol and enhances the synthesis non-17 alpha-hydroxylated steroids in cultured human adrenocortical cells. Endocrinology. 1987 Nov;121(5):1908-10. [PMID: 3499311]
[4] Anbarasi K, Vani G, Balakrishna K, Devi CS. Effect of bacoside A on brain antioxidant status in cigarette smoke exposed rats. Life Sci. 2005 Oct 11. [PMID: 16226278]
[5] Jarry H, Thelen P, Christoffel V, Spengler B, Wuttke W. Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055 inhibits proliferation of the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Phytomedicine. 2005 Mar;12(3):178-82. [PMID: 15830838]
[6] Stromeier S, Petereit F, Nahrstedt A. Phenolic esters from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa do not cause proliferation effects in MCF-7 cells. Planta Med. 2005 Jun;71(6):495-500. [PMID: 15971118]
[7] Seidlova-Wuttke D, Hesse O, Jarry H, Christoffel V, Spengler B, Becker T, Wuttke. W. Evidence for selective estrogen receptor modulator activity in a black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract: comparison with estradiol-17beta. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003 Oct;149(4):351-62. [PMID: 14514351].
[8] Williamson EM. Synergy and other interactions in phytomedicines. Phytomedicine. 2001 Sep;8(5):401-9. [PMID: 11695885].
[9] Hsieh MT, Wu CR, Wang WH, Lin LW. The ameliorating effect of the water layer of Fructus Schisandrae on cycloheximide-induced amnesia in rats: interaction with drugs acting at neurotransmitter receptors. Pharmacol Res. 2001 Jan;43(1):17-22. [PMID: 11207061]
[10] Lee YJ, Cho JY, Kim JH, Park WK, Kim DK, Rhyu MR. Extracts from Schizandra chinensis fruit activate estrogen receptors: a possible clue to its effects on nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Jul;27(7):1066-9. [PMID: 15256741].
[11] Bagchi D, Sen CK, Bagchi M, Atalay M. Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties of a novel anthocyanin-rich berry extract formula. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004 Jan;69(1):75-80, 1 p preceding 75. [PMID: 14972022]
[12] Reed J. Cranberry flavonoids, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2002;42(3 Suppl):301-16. [PMID: 12058989]
[13] Manthey D, Behl C. From structural biochemistry to expression profiling: Neuroprotective activities of estrogen. Neuroscience. 2005 Dec 9. [PMID: 16343783].
[14] Anbarasi K, Vani G, Balakrishna K, Devi CS. Effect of bacoside A on brain antioxidant status in cigarette smoke exposed rats. Life Sci. 2005 Oct 11. [PMID: 16226278]
[15] Russo A, Borrelli F. Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview. Phytomedicine. 2005 Apr;12(4):305-17. [PMID: 15898709]
[16] Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, Gu C, van Breemen RB, Bhat KP, Booth N, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 May;49(5):2472-9. [PMID: 11368622]
[17] Hirata JD, Swiersz LM, Zell B, Small R, Ettinger B. Does dong quai have estrogenic effects in postmenopausal women? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 1997 Dec;68(6):981-6. [PMID: 9418683]
[18] Sassa S, Kikuchi T, Shinoda H, Suzuki S, Kudo H, Sakamoto S. Preventive effect of ferulic acid on bone loss in ovariectomized rats. In Vivo. 2003 May-Jun;17(3):277-80. [PMID: 12929580]
[19] Zumoff B, Miller L, Levin J, Levit CD, Miller EH, Heinz U, Kalin M, Denman H, Jandorek R, Rosenfeld RS. Follicular-phase serum progesterone levels of nonsmoking women do not differ from the levels of nonsmoking men. Steroids. 1990 Dec;55(12):557-9. [PMID: 2089746]
[20] Cheng JT, Tsai CL. Anti-inflammatory effect of saikogenin A. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Aug 1;35(15):2483-7. [PMID: 2427082]
[21] De Geyter C, De Geyter M, Huber PR, Nieschlag E, Holzgreve W. Progesterone serum levels during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle originate from the crosstalk between the ovaries and the adrenal cortex. Hum Reprod. 2002 Apr;17(4):933-9. [PMID: 11925385]
[22] Park KH, Park J, Koh D, Lim Y. Effect of saikosaponin-A, a triterpenoid glycoside, isolated from Bupleurum falcatum on experimental allergic asthma. Phytother Res. 2002 Jun;16(4):359-63. [PMID: 12112293]
[23] Mishuk VP, Saiapin SR. Endocrine mechanisms of the pathogenesis of nocturnal asthma. Probl Tuberk Bolezn Legk. 2005;(8):57-60. [PMID: 16209024]
[24] Lam SM, Huang SC. Premenstrual asthma: report of a case with hormonal studies. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 1998 Sep;31(3):197-9. [PMID: 10496158]
[25] Cha Liang-Lun, et al: 880778, Abstracts of Chinese Medicine Vol.2, No3, Nov. (1988).
[26] Zha LL. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1988 Feb;8(2):95-7, 70. Experimental effect of Rehmannia glutinosa on the pituitary and adrenal cortex in a glucocorticoid inhibition model using rabbits. [PMID: 3409436]
[27] Zhang R, Zhou J, Jia Z, Zhang Y, Gu G. Hypoglycemic effect of Rehmannia glutinosa oligosaccharide in hyperglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its mechanism. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jan;90(1):39-43. [PMID: 14698506]
[28] Oh KO, Kim SW, Kim JY, Ko SY, Kim HM, Baek JH, Ryoo HM, Kim JK. Effect of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch extracts on bone metabolism. Clin Chim Acta. 2003 Aug;334(1-2):185-95. [PMID:12867291]
[29] Chang LL, Kau MM, Wun WS, Ho LT, Wang PS. Effects of fasting on corticosterone production by zona fasciculata-reticularis cells in ovariectomized rats. J Investig Med. 2002 Mar;50(2):86-94. [PMID: 11928947]
[30] McAllister JM, Hornsby PJ. TPA inhibits the synthesis of androgens and cortisol and enhances the synthesis non-17 alpha-hydroxylated steroids in cultured human adrenocortical cells. Endocrinology. 1987 Nov;121(5):1908-10. [PMID: 3499311]
[31] Ben-Shlomo I, Goldman S, Shalev E. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of MMP, and progesterone secretion in luteinized granulosa cells from normally ovulating women with polycystic ovary disease. Fertil Steril. 2003 Mar;79 Suppl 1:694-701. [PMID: 12620479]
[32] Lindner E, Dohadwalla AN, Bhattacharya BK. Positive inotropic and blood pressure lowering activity of a diterpene derivative isolated from Coleus forskohli: Forskolin. Arzneimittelforschung. 1978;28(2):284-9.  [PMID: 580393]
[33] Kreutner W, Chapman RW, Gulbenkian A, Tozzi S. Bronchodilator and antiallergy activity of forskolin. Eur J Pharmacol. 1985 Apr 23;111(1):1-8. [PMID: 2410281]
[34] Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A. Antiasthmatic activity of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata. Phytother Res. 2003 Aug;17(7):821-2. [PMID: 12916087]
[35] Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Dec;78(2-3):165-70. [PMID: 11694362]
[36] Krenn L. Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.)--a reliable herbal sedative. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2002;152(15-16):404-6. [PMID: 12244887]
[37] Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A. Beneficial effects of chrysin and benzoflavone on virility in 2-year-old male rats. J Med Food. 2002 Spring;5(1):43-8.  [PMID: 12511112]
[38] Lancel M, Faulhaber J, Holsboer F, Rupprecht R. Progesterone induces changes in sleep comparable to those of agonistic GABAA receptor modulators. Am J Physiol. 1996 Oct;271(4 Pt 1):E763-72. [PMID: 8897866]
[39] Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, Gu C, van Breemen RB, Bhat KP, Booth N, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 May;49(5):2472-9. [PMID: 11368622]
[40] Milewicz A, Gejdel E, Sworen H, Sienkiewicz K, Jedrzejak J, Teucher T, Schmitz H. Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Jul;43(7):752-6. [PMID: 8369008]
[41] Bensky D, Gamble A, Kaptchuk T. Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica, rev ed, Seattle: Eastland Press, 1993:331–2
[42] Sakamoto S, Yoshino H, Shirahata Y, Shimodairo K, Okamoto R. Pharmacotherapeutic effects of kuei-chih-fu-ling-wan (keishi-bukuryo-gan) on human uterine myomas. Am J Chin Med. 1992;20(3-4):313-7. [PMID: 1471615]
[43] Koyama T, Ohara M, Ichimura M, Saito M. Effect of Japanese kampo medicine on hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function in women with ovarian insufficiency. Am J Chin Med. 1988;16(1-2):47-55. [PMID: 3218631]
[44] Watanabe H. Candidates for cognitive enhancer extracted from medicinal plants: paeoniflorin and tetramethylpyrazine. Behav Brain Res. 1997 Feb;83(1-2):135-41. [PMID: 9062672]
[45] Kang JH, Park YH, Choi SW, Yang EK, Lee WJ. Resveratrol derivatives potently induce apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Exp Mol Med. 2003 Dec 31;35(6):467-74. [PMID: 14749523]
[46] Au AL, Kwok CC, Lee AT, Kwan YW, Lee MM, Zhang RZ, Ngai SM, Lee SM, He GW, Fung KP. Activation of iberiotoxin-sensitive, Ca2+-activated K+ channels of porcine isolated left anterior descending coronary artery by diosgenin. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Oct 11;502(1-2):123-33. [PMID: 15464098]
[47] Willard, T, 1992, Textbook of Advanced Herbology, Wild Rose College of Natural Healing, Aberta, Canada, p 123.
[48] Priest, AW, Priest, LR, 1982, Herbal Medication, LN Fowler and Co. Ltd., Essex, p. 68.
[49] Chang CS, Liao SS. Topographic recognition of cyclic hydrocarbons and related compounds by receptors for androgens, estrogens, and glucocorticoids. J Steroid Biochem. 1987;27(1-3):123-31. [PMID: 3695475]
[50] Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res. 1999 Jun;13(4):275-91. [PMID: 10404532]
[51] Parihar MS, Hemnani T. Experimental excitotoxicity provokes oxidative damage in mice brain and attenuation by extract of Asparagus racemosus. J Neural Transm. 2004 Jan;111(1):1-12. Epub 2003 Dec 3. [PMID: 14714211]
[52] Arletti R, Benelli A, Cavazzuti E, Scarpetta G, Bertolini A. Stimulating property of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata extracts on the sexual-behavior of male rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Mar;143(1):15-9. [PMID: 10227074]
[53] Hnatyszyn O, Moscatelli V, Garcia J, Rondina R, Costa M, Arranz C, Balaszczuk A, Ferraro G, Coussio JD. Argentinian plant extracts with relaxant effect on the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum of guinea pig. Phytomedicine. 2003 Nov;10(8):669-74. [PMID: 14692728]
[54] Liao HJ, Chen XM, Li WG. [Effect of Epimedium sagittatum on quality of life and cellular immunity in patients of hemodialysis maintenance. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Apr;15(4):202-4. [PMID: 7647539]
[55] Mao H, Zhang L, Wang Y, Li X. Experimental studies of icariin on anticancer mechanism. Zhong Yao Cai. 2000 Sep;23(9):554-6. [PMID: 12575282]
[56] Zhao Y, Cui Z, Zhang L. Effects of icariin on the differentiation of HL-60 cells. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 1997 Jan;19(1):53-5. [PMID: 10743057]
[57] Xin ZC, Kim EK, Lin CS, Liu WJ, Tian L, Yuan YM, Fu J. Effects of icariin on cGMP-specific PDE5 and cAMP-specific PDE4 activities. Asian J Androl. 2003 Mar;5(1):15-8. [PMID: 12646997]
[58] D'Amati G, di Gioia CR, Bologna M, Giordano D, Giorgi M, Dolci S, Jannini EA. Type 5 phosphodiesterase expression in the human vagina. Urology. 2002 Jul;60(1):191-5. [PMID: 12100961]
[59] Liu WJ, Xin ZC, Xin H, Yuan YM, Tian L, Guo YL. Effects of icariin on erectile function and expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in castrated rats. Asian J Androl. 2005 Dec;7(4):381-8. [PMID: 16281085]
[60] Wu T, Cui L, Zhang Z, Chen Z, Li Q, Liao J, Huang L. Experimental study on antagonizing action of herba Epimedii on side effects induced by glucocorticoids. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1996 Dec;21(12):748-51, 763. [PMID: 9812684]
[61] Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Gonez C. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men. J Endocrinol. 2003 Jan;176(1):163-8. [PMID: 12525260]
[62] Ruiz-Luna AC, Salazar S, Aspajo NJ, Rubio J, Gasco M, Gonzales GF. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005 May 3;3(1):16. [PMID: 15869705]
[63] Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Gonzales C, Chung A, Vega K, Villena A. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men. Asian J Androl. 2001 Dec;3(4):301-3. [PMID: 11753476]
[64] Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Gonez C, Castillo S. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia. 2002 Dec;34(6):367-72. [PMID: 12472620]
[65] Bogani P, Simonini F, Iriti M, Rossoni M, Faoro F, Poletti A, Visioli F. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) does not exert direct androgenic activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 17. [PMID: 16239088]
[66] Gonzales GF, Miranda S, Nieto J, Fernandez G, Yucra S, Rubio J, Yi P, Gasco M. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005 Jan 20;3(1):5. [PMID: 15661081]
[67] Piacente S, Carbone V, Plaza A, Zampelli A, Pizza C. Investigation of the tuber constituents of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.). J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Sep 25;50(20):5621-5. [PMID: 12236688]
[68] Herraiz T. Tetrahydro-beta-carbolines, potential neuroactive alkaloids, in chocolate and cocoa. J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Oct;48(10):4900-4. [PMID: 11052752]
[69] Nielsen EB, White FJ, Holohean AM, Callahan PM, Appel JB. Behavioral and biochemical evidence for serotonergic actions of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines. Life Sci. 1982 Nov 29;31(22):2433-9. [7154844]
[70] McKay D. Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidence. Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar;9(1):4-16. [15005641]
[71] Harvey NS. Serial cognitive profiles in levodopa-induced hypersexuality. Br J Psychiatry. 1988 Dec;153:833-6. [PMID: 3256388]
[72] Berger Ch, Mehrhoff FW, Beier KM, Meinck HM. Sexual delinquency and Parkinson's disease. Nervenarzt. 2003 Apr;74(4):370-5. [12707708]
[73] Nagashayana N, Sankarankutty P, Nampoothiri MR, Mohan PK, Mohanakumar KP. Association of L-DOPA with recovery following Ayurveda medication in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2000 Jun 15;176(2):124-7. [PMID: 10930594]
[74] Horita H, Sato Y, Adachi H, Suzuki N, Kato R, Hisasue S, Suzuki K, Tsukamoto T. Effects of levodopa on nocturnal penile tumescence: a preliminary study. J Androl. 1998 Sep-Oct;19(5):619-24. [PMID: 9796623]
[75] Szczypka MS, Zhou QY, Palmiter RD. Dopamine-stimulated sexual behavior is testosterone dependent in mice. Behav Neurosci. 1998 Oct;112(5):1229-35. [PMID: 9829800]
[76] Mauras N, Walton P, Nicar M, Welch S, Rogol AD. Growth hormone stimulation testing in both short and normal statured children: use of an immunofunctional assay. Pediatr Res. 2000 Nov;48(5):614-8. [PMID: 11044480]
[77] Gauthaman K, Adaikan PG, Prasad RN. Aphrodisiac properties of Tribulus Terrestris extract (Protodioscin) in normal and castrated rats. Life Sci. 2002 Aug 9;71(12):1385-96. [PMID: 12127159]
[78] Gauthaman K, Adaikan PG. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity and androgen receptors in rat brain. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 4;96(1-2):127-32. [PMID: 15588660]
[79] Neychev VK, Mitev VI. The aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris does not influence the androgen production in young men. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):319-23. [PMID: 15994038]
[80] Gauthaman K, Ganesan AP, Prasad RN. Sexual effects of puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an evaluation using a rat model. J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Apr;9(2):257-65. [PMID: 12804079]
[81] Adaikan PG, Gauthaman K, Prasad RN, Ng SC. Proerectile pharmacological effects of Tribulus terrestris extract on the rabbit corpus cavernosum. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2000 Jan;29(1):22-6. [PMID: 10748960]
[82] Archana R, Namasivayam A. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Jan;64(1):91-3. [PMID: 10075127]
[83] Dhuley JN. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Apr;70(1):57-63. [PMID: 10720789]
[84] Abdel-Magied EM, Abdel-Rahman HA, Harraz FM. The effect of aqueous extracts of Cynomorium coccineum and Withania somnifera on testicular development in immature Wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Apr;75(1):1-4. [PMID: 11282435]
[85] Iuvone T, Esposito G, Capasso F, Izzo AA. Induction of nitric oxide synthase expression by Withania somnifera in macrophages. Life Sci. 2003 Feb 21;72(14):1617-25. [PMID: 12551750]
[86] Mehta AK, Binkley P, Gandhi SS, Ticku MK. Pharmacological effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABAA receptor complex. Indian J Med Res. 1991 Aug;94:312-5. [PMID: 1660034]
[87] Jain S, Shukla SD, Sharma K, Bhatnagar M. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampal sub-regions of female albino rat. Phytother Res. 2001 Sep;15(6):544-8. [PMID: 11536389]
[88] Mehta AK, Binkley P, Gandhi SS, Ticku MK. Pharmacological effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABAA receptor complex. Indian J Med Res. 1991 Aug;94:312-5. [PMID: 1660034]
[89] Schliebs R, Liebmann A, Bhattacharya SK, Kumar A, Ghosal S, Bigl V. Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAergic markers in rat brain. Neurochem Int. 1997 Feb;30(2):181-90. [PMID: 9017665]
[90] Deyama T, Nishibe S, Nakazawa Y. Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 Dec;22(12):1057-70. [PMID: 11749801]
[91] Panossian A, Wagner H. Stimulating effect of adaptogens: an overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration. Phytother Res. 2005 Oct;19(10):819-38. [PMID: 16261511]
[92] Kimura Y, Sumiyoshi M. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec;95(2-3):447-53. [PMID: 15507373]
[93] Kwan CY, Zhang WB, Sim SM, Deyama T, Nishibe S. Vascular effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): endothelium-dependent NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxation depending on vessel size. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004 May;369(5):473-80. Epub 2004 Apr 17. [PMID: 15095033]
[94] Sandroni P. Aphrodisiacs past and present: a historical review. Clin Auton Res. 2001 Oct;11(5):303-7. [PMID: 11758796]
[95] Beckers A, Parotte MC, Gaspard U, Khalife A. Hyperandrogenism: clinical aspects, investigation and treatment. Rev Med Liege. 1999 Apr;54(4):274-82. [PMID: 10389470]
[96] Derman RJ. Androgen excess in women. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud. 1996 Mar-Apr;41(2):172-6. [PMID: 8829697].
[97] Prager N, Bickett K, French N, Marcovici G. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of botanically derived inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Apr;8(2):143-52. [PMID: 12006122]
[98] Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.
[99] Duke, James A. Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. www.ars-grin.gov/duke/
[100] Raynaud JP, Cousse H, Martin PM. Inhibition of type 1 and type 2 5alpha-reductase activity by free fatty acids, active ingredients of Permixon. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Oct;82(2-3):233-9. [PMID: 12477490]
[101] Prager N, Bickett K, French N, Marcovici G. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of botanically derived inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Apr;8(2):143-52. [12006122]
[102] Breu W, Hagenlocher M, Redl K, Tittel G, Stadler F, Wagner H. Anti-inflammatory activity of sabal fruit extracts prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide. In vitro antagonists of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase metabolism. Arzneimittelforschung. 1992 Apr;42(4):547-51. [PMID: 1642680].
[103] Javidnia K, Dastgheib L, Mohammadi Samani S, Nasiri A. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract. A double-blind placebo controlled study.
Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):455-8. [PMID: 13678227]
[104] Choi EM, Hwang JK. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare. Fitoterapia. 2004 Sep;75(6):557-65. [PMID: 15351109]
[105] Bnouham M, Merhfour FZ, Ziyyat A, Mekhfi H, Aziz M, Legssyer A. Antihyperglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica. Fitoterapia. 2003 Dec;74(7-8):677-81. [PMID: 14630172]
[106] Farzami B, Ahmadvand D, Vardasbi S, Majin FJ, Khaghani Sh. Induction of insulin secretion by a component of Urtica dioica leave extract in perifused Islets of Langerhans and its in vivo effects in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Nov;89(1):47-53. [PMID: 14522431]
[107] Schulze-Tanzil G, de SP, Behnke B, Klingelhoefer S, Scheid A, Shakibaei M. Effects of the antirheumatic remedy hox alpha--a new stinging nettle leaf extract--on matrix metalloproteinases in human chondrocytes in vitro. Histol Histopathol. 2002 Apr;17(2):477-85.  [PMID: 11962753]
[108] Ahmed M, Ahamed RN, Aladakatti RH, Ghosesawar MG. Reversible anti-fertility effect of benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves on sperm parameters and fructose content in rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;13(1):51-9. [PMID: 12099405]
[109] Kantak NM, Gogate MG. Effect of short term administration of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on reproductive behaviour of adult male rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992 Apr;36(2):109-11. [PMID: 1506071]
[110] Sakina MR, Dandiya PC, Hamdard ME, Hameed A. Preliminary psychopharmacological evaluation of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Feb;28(2):143-50. [PMID: 2329804]
[111] Sembulingam K, Sembulingam P, Namasivayam A. Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn on noise induced changes in plasma corticosterone level. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997 Apr;41(2):139-43. [PMID: 9142558]
[112] Sen P, Maiti PC, Puri S, Ray A, Audulov NA, Valdman AV. Mechanism of anti-stress activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn, eugenol and Tinospora malabarica in experimental animals. Indian J Exp Biol. 1992 Jul;30(7):592-6. [PMID: 1459632]
[113] Kelm MA, Nair MG, Strasburg GM, DeWitt DL. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory phenolic compounds from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Phytomedicine. 2000 Mar;7(1):7-13. [PMID: 10782484]
[114] Godhwani S, Godhwani JL, Vyas DS. Ocimum sanctum: an experimental study evaluating its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity in animals. J Ethnopharmacol. 1987 Nov;21(2):153-63. [PMID: 3501819]
[115] Singh S, Majumdar DK. Effect of Ocimum sanctum fixed oil on vascular permeability and leucocytes migration.  Indian J Exp Biol. 1999 Nov;37(11):1136-8. [PMID: 10783746]
[116] Sarkar A, Lavania SC, Pandey DN, Pant MC. Changes in the blood lipid profile after administration of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves in the normal albino rabbits. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1994 Oct;38(4):311-2. [PMID: 7883302]
[117]Vats V, Grover JK, Rathi SS. Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn, Ocimum sanctum Linn and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn in normal and alloxanized diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-100.  [PMID: 11744301]
[118] Chattopadhyay RR. Hypoglycemic effect of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1993 Nov;31(11):891-3. [PMID: 8112763]
[119] Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Rao NS. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990 Apr;44(4):301-6. [PMID: 2194788]
[120] Stark A, Madar Z. The effect of an ethanol extract derived from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) on bile acid absorption and cholesterol levels in rats. Br J Nutr. 1993 Jan;69(1):277-87.  [PMID: 8457534]
[121] Petit P, Sauvaire Y, Ponsin G, Manteghetti M, Fave A, Ribes G. Effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour in the rat: metabolic-endocrine correlates. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993 Jun;45(2):369-74. [PMID: 8327543]
[122] Hannan JM, Rokeya B, Faruque O, Nahar N, Mosihuzzaman M, Azad Khan AK, Ali L. Effect of soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum graecum on glycemic, insulinemic, lipidemic and platelet aggregation status of Type 2 diabetic model rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Sep;88(1):73-7. [PMID: 12902054]
[123] Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal B. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Nov;49:1057-61. [PMID: 11868855]
[124] Sur P, Das M, Gomes A, Vedasiromoni JR, Sahu NP, Banerjee S, Sharma RM, Ganguly DK. Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed extract as an antineoplastic agent. Phytother Res. 2001 May;15(3):257-9. [PMID: 11351364]
[125] Yoshimura Y, Yamaguchi O, Bellamy F, Constantinou CE. Effect of Pygeum africanum tadenan on micturition and prostate growth of the rat secondary to coadministered treatment and post-treatment with dihydrotestosterone. Urology. 2003 Feb;61(2):474-8. [PMID: 12597984]
[126] Szolnoki E, Reichart E, Marchal S, Szegedi G. The effect of Pygeum africanum on fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta 1/LAP) expression in animal model. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2001;48(1):1-9.  [PMID: 11233693]